Probiotics are known for broad health benefits established by many animal as well as human studies and continuing evaluation. Data also showed efficacy of probiotic strains in prevention of skin aging. Some probiotic strains help in maintaining skin hydration, prevent wrinkle formation and also help in prevention of premature aging.
What causes your skin aging?
Aging of the skin is commonly associated with increased wrinkling, sagging, and increased laxity. Both external or environmental factors like toxins, Ultra-Violet (UV) irradiation and internal factors play important roles in skin health and biological aging. The main biochemical, molecular, and cellular changes underlying skin aging process that include alterations of skin-associated microflora, skin pH or alkalinity increase, reduced ceramides lipid levels, abnormal oxidative stress, collagen level reduction, and altered immune responsiveness. (1,2)
Probiotics and immune response
Chronic inflammation resulting from chronic activation of the innate immune system is the leading factor in cells death as well as development of most chronic diseases. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotics could help in two main aspects of aging as gradual deterioration of the immune system and chronic low-grade inflammation with aging.(3)
The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises of various cells and is also a residence for trillions of microbes. Both microbiota and host immune system communicates with each other to mutually maintain stable equilibrium state. Further, the host innate and adaptive immune systems cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in diseases. (4)
Probiotics regulate the functions of systemic and mucosal immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells and thus help to maintain homeostasis. Therefore probiotics showed therapeutic potential for diseases, including several immune response-related or autoimmune diseases.(5) Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum had shown to reduce markers of inflammation.(6)
Immune modulation of probiotics beyond the gut in skin
Beyond immune modulation in gut study with randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design shown that oral supplementation of probiotic (Bifidobacteria infantis 35624) , once daily for 6–12 weeks (1 × 1010 CFU) had showed reduction in chronic inflammation (blood C Reactive Protein levels and inflammation signalling) in individuals with psoriasis. (7)
In another RCT study supplementation of L. plantarum IS-10506 (1010 cfu/day) twice daily for 12 weeks showed reduction of immune response resulting in clinical improvement in children with dermatitis. (8) Similarly oral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 had shown reduction in inflammation in patients with dermatitis by regulating immune system in other placebo-controlled double-blinded randomized, clinical studies.(9,10)
Probiotics and antioxidant defense
All biological structure including cells of human body undergo the detrimental action of free radicals. The free radical theory of aging proposes that aging results from accumulation of oxidative damage over a lifetime due to excess reactive free radicals. Sources of free radicals include not only the body’s biochemical processes but also many external factors like environmental toxins, radiation and toxin generating food sources, chemicals, pesticides, medications also contribute for the same. Reactive free radicals also cause damage to lipids, proteins including collage, and DNA and also influence deterioration of cells. (1)With ages people loses antioxidant defense to fight with free radicals.
Probiotics supplementation improves antioxidant defense as well as reduces reactive free radicals-confirmed in meta analysis.(11,12)
Probiotics and also when combines with prebiotics has shown to increase serum glutathione level in human and thus improves antioxidant defense. (13, 14) Also probiotics are emerging as an exciting therapeutic option or adjuvant treatment for acne.(15) Probiotics supplementation lowers the genotoxic activity of faecal water in dermatitis in RCT. (16) Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum 913 had shown to reduce DNA damage to cells. (17)Probiotics has shown to improve skin health by numbers of ways. (18)
May help in reducing MMPs activity
You may heard about collagen the main structural protein of connective tissues that holds the skins or muscles together, promotes elasticity. You may also imagine that what will happen to our skins and muscles when we are losing collagen. Two important factors regulate collagen. One transforms growth that promotes collagen production. And the other a transcription factor that inhibits collagen production and up-regulates collagen breakdown by up-regulating enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases or MMPs. MMP activity increases with age resulting to dramatic increase of levels of degraded collagen. Data suggest that probiotic treatment(L. brevis, L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus) also could decrease skin aging-associated with increased MMP activity.(1)
May help in maintaining ceramides lipid levels
Ceramides are lipid molecules and is major component of the outermost layer of human skin and can participate in a variety of cellular signalling. And reports also showing the efficacy of a selected probiotic extract in increasing ceramide levels in vivo, of healthy young and old people as well as in dermatitis patients. And thus reduces dryness, loss of tone, fullness, and water loss. These opened a new strategy against aging skin associated with a reduced amount of the ceramide. As ceramide is a major water-holding molecule in the extracellular space of the horny layer.(1)
Improve glucose metabolism
Impaired insulin sensitivity or glucose metabolism can lack of energy at cellular level and also lead to cell death. (19,20) Probiotics strains from family like Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus had improved glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity in RCT, Meta analysis.(21, 22)
Skin hydration, appearance
Fabbrocini G et al. had conducted a pilot, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 20 adult people (14 females and 6 males) with acne with liquid oral supplementation Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 (LSP1) once daily for 12 weeks, 3 × 109 CFU/day. They found Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 normalises skin expression of genes involved in insulin signalling and improves the appearance.(23) Better insulin signalling indicates better glucose uptake in cells that leads to better health of cells.
Lee DE et al from Korea had conducted Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled clinical study on effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on Skin Aging. Participants in the probiotic group consumed 2 g daily of a powder containing 2 g daily of a powder containing Lactobacillus plantarum (1× 10(10) CFU/day) for 12 weeks and other group was placebo. After 1 week supplementation researchers found significant reduction in wrinkle depth and significantly improved skin gloss(17%) and skin elasticity(22%) in probiotic group than placebo. They also noticed greater improvement in hydration in the face and forearm in the probiotic group at week 12.(24)
An unhealthy gut have impacts on overall health. Unhealthy gut bacteria critically influence the health with increased risk of diseases and mortality specifically in older people. Inflammaging an age-related chronic inflammatory process due to weak defense as people ages can lead to several age related disease. Interestingly, imbalanced intestinal microbial community has been suggested to contribute to inflammaging. By reducing inflammation probiotics can help in preventing diseases as well as early aging. (25, 26)
Probiotics exert many health beneficial effects. We can also aspect improvement of skin health and anti aging benefits from probiotics. In present this is mainly attributed to Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium families. Bacterial world in connection to human health yet to be discovered more. Probiotics is appears as extremely safe in oral consumption. However you should not use probiotics during critical illness.
Disclaimer: Information provided here are generalized information for educational purpose only, not intended to provide one to one health consultation or replace practice of a qualified practitioner. Different people may have different health condition and may have different reaction to the same food. Hence it has been advised to consult with health care provider before application of any of above information. 1.Cinque, Benedetta & Palumbo, Paola & La Torre, Cristina & Melchiorre,Esterina & Corridoni, Daniele & Miconi, Gianfranca & Di Marzio, Luisa & Cifone, Maria Grazia & Giuliani, Maurizio. (2017). Probiotics in Aging Skin. 10.1007/978-3-662-47398-6_78. 2. Despoina E. Kiousi, Athanasios Karapetsas, Kyriaki Karolidou, Mihalis I.Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, and Alex Galanis, Probiotics in Extraintestinal Diseases: Current Trends and New Directions, Nutrients. 2019 Apr; 11(4): 788 3.José María Landete, Pilar Gaya, Eva Rodríguez, Susana Langa, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, and Juan L. Arqués, Probiotic Bacteria for Healthier Aging: Immunomodulation and Metabolism of Phytoestrogens,Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017: 5939818 4.Benoit Chassaing, Manish Kumar, Mark T. Baker, Vishal Singh, and Matam Vijay-Kumar,Mammalian Gut Immunity, Biomed J. 2014 Sep- Oct; 37(5): 246–258 5.Fang Yan and D.B. Polk, Probiotics and immune health, Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2011 Oct; 27(6): 496–501. 6.Bäuerl C, Llopis M, Antolín M, Monedero V, Mata M, Zúñiga M, Guarner F,Pérez Martínez G.,Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains downregulate proinflammatory genes in an ex vivo system of cultured human colonic mucosa,Genes Nutr. 2013 Mar;8(2):165-80. 7.Groeger D, O'Mahony L, Murphy EF, Bourke JF, Dinan TG, Kiely B, Shanahan F, Quigley EM.,Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 modulates host inflammatory processes beyond the gut, Gut Microbes. 2013 Jul-Aug;4(4):325-39. 8.Prakoeswa CRS, Herwanto N, Prameswari R, Astari L, Sawitri S, Hidayati AN, Indramaya DM, Kusumowidagdo ER, Surono IS.,Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 supplementation reduced SCORAD in children with atopic dermatitis 9.Inoue Y, Kambara T, Murata N, Komori-Yamaguchi J, Matsukura S, Takahashi Y, Ikezawa Z, Aihara M.,Effects of oral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 on the symptoms and serum cytokines of atopic dermatitis in Japanese adults: a double- blind, randomized, clinical trial, Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2014;165(4):247-54 10.Yamamoto K, Yokoyama K, Matsukawa T, Kato S, Kato S, Yamada K, Hirota T,Efficacy of prolonged ingestion of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 in adult patients with atopic dermatitis, J Dairy Sci. 2016 Jul;99(7):5039-5046 11.Javad Heshmati et al, A systematic review and meta-analysis of the probiotics and synbiotics effects on oxidative stress,Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 46, July 2018, Pages 66-84 12.Zamani B, Sheikhi A, Namazi N, Larijani B, Azadbakht L, The Effects of Supplementation with Probiotic on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Adult Subjects: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials,Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019 Jan 21. 13.Rehema, A., Kullisaar, T., Seer, K., et al. (2015). Proteomic proof that a probiotic elevates glutathione level in human serum. Open Life Sciences, 10(1), pp. -. Retrieved 17 Jun. 2019, from doi:10.1515/biol-2015-0021 14.Paulina Kleniewska, Arkadiusz Hoffmann, Ewa Pniewska, and Rafał Pawliczak, The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2016, Article ID 1340903, 10 pages 15.Caitlin F. Porubsky, Alexandria B. Glass, Victoria Comeau, Christopher Buckley, Marcus B. Goodman and Mary-Margaret Kober (November 5th 2018). The Role of Probiotics in Acne and Rosacea, Probiotics - Current Knowledge and Future Prospects, Shymaa Enany, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79044. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/probiotics- current-knowledge-and-future-prospects/the-role-of-probiotics-in- acne-and-rosacea 16.Roessler A, Forssten SD, Glei M, Ouwehand AC, Jahreis G.,The effect of probiotics on faecal microbiota and genotoxic activity of faecal water in patients with atopic dermatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study,Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb;31(1):22-9. 17.Oberreuther-Moschner DL1, Jahreis G, Rechkemmer G, Pool-Zobel BL.,Dietary intervention with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum 913 modulates the potential of human faecal water to induce damage in HT29clone19A cells, Br J Nutr. 2004 Jun;91(6):925-32 18. L.-C. Lew and M.-T. Liong, Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits,Journal of Applied Microbiology, Volume114,Issue 5, May 2013, Pages 1241-1253 19.R Palorini, F Cammarata,C Balestrieri, A Monestiroli, M Vasso, C Gelfi, L Alberghina, and F Chiaradonna, Glucose starvation induces cell death in K-ras-transformed cells by interfering with the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and activating the unfolded protein response, Cell Death Dis. 2013 Jul; 4(7): e732 20.Caro-Maldonado A, Tait SW, Ramírez-Peinado S, Ricci JE, Fabregat I, Green DR, Muñoz-Pinedo C., Glucose deprivation induces an atypical form of apoptosis mediated by caspase-8 in Bax-, Bak-deficient cells, Cell Death Differ. 2010 Aug;17(8):1335-44 21.Kecheng Yao, Linghai Zeng,Qian He,Wei Wang Jiao Lei,and Xiulan Zou,Effect of Probiotics on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Randomized Controlled Trials,Med Sci Monit. 2017; 23: 3044–3053 22. Kristina M. Utzschneider,Mario Kratz, Chris J.Damman,Meredith Hullarg,Mechanisms Linking the Gut Microbiome and Glucose Metabolism, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 101, Issue 4, 1 April 2016 23. Fabbrocini G, Bertona M, Picazo Ó, Pareja-Galeano H, Monfrecola G, Emanuele E., Supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 normalises skin expression of genes implicated in insulin signalling and improves adult acne,Benef Microbes. 2016 Nov 30;7(5):625-630. Epub 2016 Sep 6 24. Lee DE, Huh CS, Ra J, Choi ID, Jeong JW, Kim SH, Ryu JH, Seo YK, Koh JS, Lee JH, Sim JH, Ahn YT.,Clinical Evidence of Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on Skin Aging: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study, J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015 Dec 28;25(12):2160-8 25.Anna Picca, Francesca Fanelli, Riccardo Calvani, Giuseppina Mulè, Vito Pesce, Alex Sisto, Cecilia Pantanelli, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi,and Emanuele Marzetti,Gut Dysbiosis and Muscle Aging: Searching for Novel Targets against Sarcopenia, Mediators Inflamm. 2018; 2018: 7026198 26. Julio Plaza-Díaz Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Laura Maria Vilchez-Padial and angel Gil,Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases, Nutrients. 2017 Jun; 9(6): 555