This magnificent mineral magnesium participates in more than 300 bioactivities in your body, many of which involve in cardiovascular and metabolic health. Deficiency of which can make you prone to several health disorders. (1)In the previous article, we have discussed how magnesium relaxes muscles, artery, heart tissue as well as improves sleep. And here, we here are going to explore Magnesium for Glucose control & cardiovascular health.
In our previous article, we have talked about the roles of magnesium in
- Muscle contraction and relaxation
- In the maintenance of the right heartbeat
- Maintaining elasticity of blood vessels
- In the reduction of high blood pressure (also read about foods that lower high blood pressure)
- Reduce anxiety, stress, as well as improvement of sleep.
Magnesium for Glucose control & cardiovascular health: The miracle mineral
In a 2019 published review in the Journal of Cardiology Research and Practice, researchers identify magnesium as a key cardiovascular regulator, which maintains electrical, metabolic, and vascular equilibrium. (2)
Magnesium and Inflammation
In modern lifestyle, chronic inflammation is a critical factor in developing chronic diseases. Apart from other roles, magnesium also participates in the regulation of inflammation and oxidative processes by modulating the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-kB signaling pathway as well as scavenging reactive free radicals. (2) Results from a meta-analysis of clinical studies from inception to August 09, 2016, indicated that magnesium supplementation reduces CRP levels that circulate in response to inflammation among individuals with inflammation. And researchers suggest that magnesium supplements may have a beneficial role in the management of low-grade chronic inflammation. (3)
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Magnesium for cardiovascular health
In our previous article, we have talked about the roles of magnesium in relaxation, arterial stiffness, maintenance of healthy heartbeat, lowering high blood pressure as well as improvement of sleep. All these factors have important roles for the betterment of cardiovascular health.
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Magnesium for Insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control
Hormone insulin produced by pancreas signal cells for lifting sugar or glucose from the blood which you absorb through intestine after digestion. After removing sugar from the blood, your body stores in cells as fat for future use. If you don’t use, that stored fat increase your body mass. Too much sugar in your blood inflames your blood vessel and can even lead to organ failure. That’s why insulin is the primary hormone that you need for blood glucose control.
Now for removing sugar or glucose from the blood, your cell needs to respond to signals of insulin actively. That we call insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, with insulin resistance, your cells are not responding or ignoring signals of insulin. I will come with future articles about how this happens. And with the occurrence of insulin resistance, the pathway of development of type 2 diabetes begins. That’s why we need insulin sensitivity, not insulin resistance.
With the continuous presence of insulin, some other vital functions like autophagy, the action of glucagon, growth hormones don’t work. With the increased amount and acting time of insulin suppresses Human Growth Hormone signaling. (4) Increased level of insulin with insulin resistance resists fat-burning, leads to obesity, chronic inflammation, heart disease, and more. So, we need insulin sensitivity, which means insulin comes when required, does its job and goes.
On further, the high insulin level in blood further accompanied by insulin resistance increases magnesium excretion through urine. (5)
Magnesium has shown to improve insulin sensitivity
Magnesium plays an important role in the metabolic system of the body. And deficiency of which relates to metabolic syndrome that characterized by increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol levels. (6)
Studies on type 2 diabetes
Numbers of well-designed studies reported improvement of insulin sensitivity with oral intake of magnesium that prevents development type 2 diabetes. A randomized, double-blind clinical study published in the journal of Diabetic Care concluded oral supplementation magnesium restores serum magnesium levels as well as improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in people with diabetes and decreased serum magnesium levels. (7) Another double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical study published in Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, found oral ingestion of magnesium improves insulin sensitivity even in people with normal magnesium levels but overweight, non-diabetic peoples. They also emphasize the need for an early optimization of magnesium status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. (8)
Other studies also found magnesium supplementation improves metabolic profile like insulin sensitivity as well as blood pressure. (9,10)
Another large systematic review and meta-analysis of gold-standard clinical studies piled data from PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar from inception to November 25, 2015. Researchers found magnesium supplementation for more than or equivalent to 4 months significantly improves insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose, in both diabetic as well as non-diabetic peoples. (11)
Also, read about top natural sweetener for the replacement of table sugar.
How much magnesium is needed for glucose control or insulin sensitivity?
Diet with a higher amount of magnesium significantly reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. That is probably due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity. In the clinical study, researchers used 500 mg/day or 1,000 mg/day magnesium oxide (providing 300 or 600 mg elemental magnesium, respectively) for reducing the risk of diabetes. Study also found that even a 100 mg/day increase in total magnesium intake decreased the risk of diabetes by a statistically significant 15%. (1) However, if you are going for a therapeutic dose you should first consult with your healthcare. And also you need to look at your intake through food if you are going to take a supplement as both combinations may contribute to a higher intake.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Magnesium:
As magnesium is an essential mineral, that has many vital functions, therefore deficiency can lead to a number of health complications. For information about food sources, how much magnesium your body can absorb from foods as well as bioavailability of different supplemental form, you can go to our previous article.
Disclaimer: Information provided here are generalized information for educational purpose only, not intended to provide one to one health consultation or replace practice of a qualified practitioner. Different people may have different health condition and may have different reaction to the same food. Hence it has been advised to consult with health care provider before application of any of above information Source and references: 1.https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/ 2. Paolo Severino, Lucrezia Netti, Marco Valerio Mariani, et al., “Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Screening for Magnesium Deficiency,” Cardiology Research and Practice, vol. 2019, Article ID 4874921, 10 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4874921. 3. Simental-Mendia LE, Sahebkar A, Rodriguez-Moran M, Zambrano-Galvan G, Guerrero-Romero F.,Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Plasma C-reactive Protein Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(31):4678-4686. doi: 10.2174/1381612823666170525153605. 4.Qiu H, Yang JK, Chen C, Influence of insulin on growth hormone secretion, level and growth hormone signalling, Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2017 Oct 25;69(5):541-556 5. Djurhuus MS, Skøtt P, Hother-Nielson O, Klitgaard NA, Beck-Nielsen H., Insulin increases renal magnesium excretion: a possible cause of magnesium depletion in hyperinsulinaemic states, Diabet Med. 1995 Aug;12(8):664-9. 6. Rosanoff A, Weaver CM, Rude RK., Suboptimal magnesium status in the United States: are the health consequences underestimated?, Nutr Rev. 2012 Mar;70(3):153-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00465.x. 7. Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F., Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial, Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52. 8. Mooren FC, Krüger K, Völker K, Golf SW, Wadepuhl M, Kraus A., Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Mar;13(3):281-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01332.x 9. Rodríguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F.,Oral magnesium supplementation improves the metabolic profile of metabolically obese, normal-weight individuals: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, Arch Med Res. 2014 Jul;45(5):388-93. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2014.05.003. 10. Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez HE, González-González G, Salinas- Martínez AM, Montes-Villarreal J, Treviño-Ortiz JH, Rodríguez-Morán M., Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non- diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo- controlled randomized trial, Diabetes Metab. 2004 Jun;30(3):253-8 11. Simental-Mendía LE, Sahebkar A, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F, A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control, Pharmacol Res. 2016 Sep;111:272-282. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.06.019